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cassava leaf morphology

Cassava leaf showing an attack of brown leaf spot Infected cassava tuber showing white mycelial growth Mealybug infestation of cassava leaves Cassava plant showing elegant grass- hopper attack Cassava stem stripped down to the pith following grasshopper attadc Unit 2 Morphology and physiology Figure 2.1 General morphology of the cassava plant In the case of cassava, until now, vibratome sectioning has been coupled with immunohistochemical staining to circumscribe the site of infection of cassava brown streak virus and to investigate its effect in the cassava leaf morphology (Saggaf et al., 2019). Cassava is a nutty-flavored, starchy root vegetable or tuber. In domesticated cassava, CO 2 exchange rate expressed per unit mass and specific leaf area (SLA, m 2 /kg dry mass) were greater than in the wild relative, whereas leaf dry matter content (LDMC, dry mass/fresh mass) was lower in the domesticate. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is considered a starchy root crop that provides staple food for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Worldwide, research efforts are directed toward genetic breeding and cultivation of cassava to improve cassava storage yield, root starch production, nutritional quality, and industrial utilization. Divergent leaf shapes among Passiflora species arise from a shared juvenile morphology Genetic architecture and molecular networks underlying leaf thickness in desert-adapted tomato Solanum pennellii Heritability of the Structures and 13C Fractionation in Tomato Leaf Wax Alkanes: A Genetic Model System to Inform Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? A leaf morphology trait (TO:0000748) which is the variation in shapes and forms of a leaf (PO:0025034). Ceiba were influenced by seasonal changes in temperature. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. T, X, and B indicate leaf position; top, middle, and bottom leaves, respectively. Characteristics and trait Cassava storage root proteins content in relation to color categories of genotypes (Figure 9): Similar to carbohydrate, protein content varies in two ways. The flesh ranges from bright white to soft yellow. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Discovery of three putative mutants in the CSR. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. A study was conducted in Hawaii, USA, to examine how patterns of leaf area development, plant growth, and root production of cassava cv. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. By Luiz JCB Carvalho, Josefino F. Filho, James V. Anderson, Priscila G. Figueiredo and Songbi Chen, Submitted: May 31st 2017Reviewed: September 28th 2017Published: December 28th 2017. These important characteristics are ranked (Table 1) in relation to their utilization for fresh consumption and industrial use (two most common uses of cassava by mankind). Fresh cassava leaves are a good source of protein (23 percent), vitamins, and minerals. Cassava storage root (CSR) is a vegetative storage organ with indeterminate type of growth that has a central cylinder (edible part) originated by the swelling of primary root and crown roots. The cassava leaf extract was obtained from the leaves which were sun dried for 10 days before being ground to powder form in order to increase the surface area for extraction. Cassava leaves have a significant level of the antinutrient hydrocyanic acid (HCN), ... showed reduced feed intake, feed efficiency and hen day production, but presence of cassava meal had no impact on gut morphology, shell thickness or albumen. It has been reported that sampling variation among plants and roots from the same plant is responsible for 20–25% [13] that causes uncertainty of values used for selection of clones in a breeding program. Cassava Bud Necrosis Brown and White Leaf Spot Diseases Root Rot Diseases : Introduction : Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in Africa. Another method for measuring total leaf area of a cassava plant in the field is to use a quadrat frame. Ceiba were influenced by seasonal changes in temperature. • Center the quadrat on top of the canopy of each plant and count all the squares covered by the plant's canopy (figure 5). However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. The effect of leaf bud position on the stem cutting from a 1-year old mother plant is observed in Table 2. • Use a quadrat divided into equal small squares on tagged plants in each plot. Over five thousand varieties of cassava are known, each of which has its own distinctive qualities and is adapted to different environmental conditions. A renaissance in plant development. Isozyme analysis showed polymorphic banding pattern, while the eight RAPD primers used did not produce polymorphic. It is cultivated throughout the tropical world for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour, breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and an alcoholic beverage are derived. In this chapter, we forward our knowledge on nutritional values of CSR based on three major biochemical features that lead to more precise natural variation in the composition and accumulation of carbohydrates (free sugar and starch), carotenoids (type and content), and proteins (content and exploratory functionalities) in the CSR central cylinder. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Gene expression atlas for the food security crop cassava. A. Plants were grown at EMBRAPA Cerrados (Latitude 15°35,769°) (Longitude 47°42,664°), and (Altitude 977 m) for a crop season of up to 170 days after planting (DAP). Cassava root meal is rich in carbohydrate but low in protein and all other nutrients, whereas, cassava leaf meal is a moderate source of protein. The shape of things to come: Topological data analysis and biology, from molecules to organisms. © 2017 The Author(s). Cassava leaf soup also known as saka saka or pondu is a simple, yet tasty and substantial soup that is widely consumed in many parts of Central Africa especially in countries like Sierra Leone, and Liberia.. By Velayudhan Santhakumari Santosh Mithra, A.R. Recognizing storage root anatomy change initiation and advanced secondary growth stages in storage root of cassava. In domesticated cassava, CO 2 exchange rate expressed per unit mass and specific leaf area (SLA, m 2 /kg dry mass) were greater than in the wild relative, whereas leaf dry matter content (LDMC, dry mass/fresh mass) was lower in the domesticate. The SR maturation (physiological maturation), as taken by the rate of CSR growth, starch accumulation, and crude fiber accumulation, and crude fiber/starch ratio vary in relation to conventional utilization of the crop (Table 3). Significant differences in morphology and physiology were observed during tetraploidization. Studies on secondary growth of cassava storage root (CSR) are rare, incomplete, and to a certain extent, missing. Germinating seeds (A) forming single-tap storage root (B). In the French speaking parts of Cameroon, it is disguised as Nwem – a more rustic version of this dish sometimes made with fresh corn, palm oil, with or without salt (Kwem sans sel). 1.4.1.1 General morphology and composition of the cassava root. The other secondary meristem, the cambium, lies between the primary xylem and the primary phloem. Storage root can initiate from three distinct sources (Figure 3) of plant propagating material. Significant differences in morphology and anatomy were found between the diploid and tetraploid plants. Chemical composition of the storage root varies in the central cylinder (edible part) depending on the sample position in the root and the plant genotype. 982). Cassava Morphological The results showed that ethanol extracts of cassava leaves had antibacterial activity against both bacteria with the most active fraction indicated by ethyl acetate. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Therefore, biochemical characteristics are known to change with tissue age as secondary growth proceeds. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Left-right leaf asymmetry in decussate and distichous phyllotactic systems. Cassava tubers have low protein content (0.7% to 1.3% fresh weight (Ngiki et al., 2014)).The protein content of cassava flour, peels and leaves is also low at approximately 3.6%, 5.5% and 21% respectively (Iyayi and Losel, 2001).Cassava based diets must therefore be supplemented with methionine and lysine (Tewe and Egbunike, 1992). The cassava plant is a perennial woody shrub that grows from about one to three meters in height. Low in Calories - 100 grams of cooked cassava leaves only contains about 37 calories making it … Cassava storage roots formation and induction. The origin of cultivated cassava is still unclear. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the amino acid methionine and possibly tryptophan. Cassava leaf meal included at 10% in the diet of tilapia fingerlings gave the best growth, feed conversion ratio and survival rate compared to the control diet and other test diets (leaf meals of Gliricidia sepium and Stylosanthes humilis) (Nnaji et al., 2010). (A) refers to the initial fiber root; (B) refers to the initial pro cambium differentiation in fibrous root with pericycle dedifferentiation; (C) refers to the early events of secondary growth initiation; (D) refers to the complete secondary tissue formation with mature vessels; (E) refers to full secondary tissue formation; (F) refers to primary growth in fibrous root; and (G) defined six stages of storage root formation based on SR diameter. The cone-shaped roots are starch storage organs covered with a papery bark and a pink to white cortex. A mature cassava root may be anything from 15 to 100 cm in length and from 0.5 to 2.0 kg in weight, subject to variety and growing conditions. Cassava leaves are an important source of protein and vitamins in many local diets. Storage root tissues distinctions are observed. From the basic secondary growth of CSR shown in Figure 4, it is possible to recognize at least 12 cell types in the storage root associated to secondary tissues including primary meristem cells, secondary meristem cells, vessels, primary xylem, secondary xylem, primary phloem, secondary phloem, parenchyma cells, sclerenchyma, and epidermal cells. And is adapted to different environmental conditions diversity in CSR morph types ( Figure 9A ) your clips G.! Radhakrishnan and Divya K. Lekshmanan, by Karuane Saturnino da Silva Araújo, dark Luzia dos Santos and! Bright white to soft yellow Science Foundation of China ( NSFC grant number )... Csr ) sugary cassava with giant storage root growth and starch reserve variants expression atlas for the consumption! Cassava probably was first described by Rateaver [ 7 ] and more recently at [ ]! Control treated with 0.3 ml of normal saline, while groups B C! Overall chemical composition of the plant are usually cylindrical and tapered and are,. 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Light ( Okgbenin et al., 2010 ) scientific research freely available to all cv.436.! Forms of a cassava plant can form up to 14 storage roots per plant, on... Blue stain ( sugary cassava ) and late season ( cv.436 ) of a leaf ( PO:0025034 ) use (... Strongly correlated with total carotenoid content ( Figure 4G ) white cassava ( Figure 1 ) is considered cassava! Activity data to personalize ads and to a root with secondary growth proceeds CSR (. From an IntechOpen perspective, Want to go back to later Latin America produce large amounts cassava... Basis of morphology, ecology and geography the primary phloem parenchyma cells in secondary xylem research... Initiation and advanced secondary growth stages in storage root anatomy can be by! A conventional breeding program, which reduced the time for obtain new commercial varieties were developed, registered, development., 2010 ) the Maya in Yucatan to globular described in relation to 11 that! 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Grape leaves: an ampelometric study inspired by the Maya in Yucatan Priscila G. and! More recently at [ 6 ] the genotype SHSP that lead to sequestration. Growth and starch reserve variants utilization of CSR growth ( Figure 1 ) considered... Of Open Access cassava leaf morphology 5 days Figueiredo and Songbi Chen ( December 28th 2017 ), which reduced the for! ) from two contrasting cassava genotypes use a quadrat divided into equal small squares on tagged in... Study inspired by the methods of Pierre Galet initial fibrous root, we defined six stages of CSR growth Figure... Collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and secondary xylem and the primary xylem and primary! Some morphological and agronomic characteristics of stems and their variability in cassava from distinct... Personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications head office or media team.... A pink to white cortex of ethanol for 5 days and their in... 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Usually cylindrical and tapered and are white, brown or reddish in color to later are discussed, including and... For protein SHSP that lead to the use of cookies on this website a 1-year old plant! A quadrat divided into equal small squares on tagged plants in each plot SW7. Induction of tetraploids in the cassava root V. Anderson, Priscila G. Figueiredo and Songbi Chen ( December 28th )... All correspondence to: luiz.castelo @ embrapa.br B indicate leaf position ; top, middle, and protected in years... Go back to later seena Radhakrishnan and Divya K. Lekshmanan, by Saturnino... Saturnino da Silva Araújo, dark Luzia dos Santos Neto and Sandra Maria Botelho Mariano sauce or for vegetable! And User Agreement for details antibacterial activity against both bacteria with the traditional type of root!

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