France and Italy each were also allowed (after 1927) to replace two of their old battleships. The propellant was changed to the SD19 propellant of the reconditioned Strasbourg powder charges; however, this caused serious problems regarding range-finding. She was fitted with air and surface warning radar, but the U.S. Navy was reluctant to provide gunnery practice radars. But all these mountings had twice the weight of those installed on Richelieu (27 or 26.6 tons versus 13 tons), so it would have been required to fit the battleship with a bulge, as on her sister-ship, to maintain buoyancy.  As three King George V-class battleships were then facing only one German battleship, Tirpitz, Richelieu was redirected to participate, as HMS Nelson, in the battleship force supporting the Normandy landing. Her armour and underwater protection were equal to most contemporary craft, only surpassed by the Japanese Yamato-class. The maximum angle of elevation of guns on the Model 1936 turret was 35Â°.  The top speed was, for most battleships, 21â25 knots (39â46 km/h);[lower-alpha 4] the Nagato-class battleships had 26.5 knots (49.1 km/h; 30.5 mph) top speeds; and a few in Western waters, the fast battleships or battlecruisers, had top speeds exceeding 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). Thence, against the advice of Gouverneur GÃ©nÃ©ral Cayla, who considered this departure as a desertion, he decided to return to Casablanca, on 25 June, escorted by the destroyer Fleuret, which had accompanied Richelieu for five days, and Rear Amiral PlanÃ§on warned the Amiral Afrique, Flag Officer at Casablanca, that " Richelieu and Fleuret have left Dakar, steering probably towards you ". No rangefinder was fitted. She arrived at Trincomalee, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 10 April 1944, in time to join the attack by Task Force 65 on Sabang on 19 April (Operation Cockpit) and on Surabaya in May 1944 (Operation Transom); she also served in Operations Councillor and Pedal, in June. Comes with a 30cm*0.55cm anchor chain. , On Richelieu, the armor weight was 16,045 tonnes (15,792 long tons) and corresponded to 39.2% of the total weight, for a 40,927 tonnes (40,281 long tons) normal displacement, with 2,905 tonnes (2,859 long tons) of fuel (half of full load). The next operation, to intercept the Haguro, was abortive. The fourth barrel from Jean Bart was used for trials at the Dahlgren firing range in Dahlgren, Virginia.  Two more fire control systems with OPL 5-meter (16 ft) stereoscopic rangefinders, for the 100 mm (3.9 in) AA battery, would have been installed on the sides of the fore tower. , The propulsion of the Richelieu was assured by six Indret boilers, and four Parsons turbines. In the same shipbuilding yard, on the #1 slipway where the SS Normandie and Strasbourg had been laid down, the Joffre was to be built from November 1938 till 1941. , The Jean Bart was officially commissioned on 16 January 1949, but the anti-aircraft short range artillery, twelve 100 mm (3.9 in) dual mountings and fourteen Bofors licensed 57 mm (2.2 in) dual mountings, was not fitted before 1952â1953. HMS Hermes whose aircraft torpedoed Richelieu, at Dakar, on 7 July 1940, and in the background, HMS Dorsetshire.  The top speed would have been 34â35 knots (63â65 km/h), the armor able to resist 203-millimetre (8.0 in) shells. French battleship Richelieu colorized.jpg 1,237 × 728; 311 KB French battleship Richelieu underway in the Atlantic Ocean on 26 August 1943 (80-G-78789).jpg 5,584 × 4,424; 11.75 MB Le Richelieu a New York pour rearmement.jpg 4,754 × 3,146; 6.65 MB , Decommissioned in 1968, the Jean Bart was scrapped in 1970 near Toulon, leaving the Turkish YavÃ»z, formerly the SMS Goeben, the only survivor afloat in European waters of the battleship era.  However, the fore and aft main quadruple turrets of the British King George V-class battleships will have independent mounting, as these ships will have nearly the same beam, 103-foot (31.39 m) versus 102.25 ft (31.10 m), and 1-inch (25.4 mm) more for the main guns caliber, 14-inch (356 mm) versus 13 in (330 mm), than on the Dunkerque. It was therefore possible to reduce the number of boiler rooms from three to two, which allowed a reduction of the armored belt's length of nearly 5 meters (16 ft), and consequently of its weight. , But the all-forward arrangement of two quadruple turrets, and more broadly the proximity between the two main artillery magazines (one for each turret), induced the greatest risk: one hit could potentially cripple the entire main battery, or even cause the ship's loss from an ammunition explosion. However, in 1940 only a prototype ACAD mounting (designated Model 1936) was tested (aboard the old patrol sloop Amiens; it was apparently successfully used during the Dunkirk evacuation). recommendation dated 5 March 1938. Thus, the aviation hangar would have been shortened by nearly 15 meters (49 ft). Each main artillery turret was fitted with a 14-meter (46 ft) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder, and each 152 mm (6.0 in) turret with a 8-meter (26 ft) double stereoscopic OPL range finder. New British built radars were set up, one Type 281 B for air warning, on the fore tower mast, one Type 285 P fire control radar on the secondary directors together with two auto barrage units (ABU). , The lookout and target designation facilities were similar in principle to the Dunkerque's. The day after, the gunnery trials were carried out, six shots being fired for each 380 mm and 100 mm guns, Â«without major damageÂ», but the main battery replenishment system gave concern, as a quarter of an hour was necessary to hoist one shell and its powder charges from the magazine to the barrel. Giorgerini, Giorgio; Nani, Antonio (1973) (in it). Battleship Richelieu, heading forth. In October, repair of the hull resumed, but the mattress failed to be effective, and the cofferdam, fitted with a kind of ballast tank, was not put in place before mid-December. 9 Ã 152 mm (6.0 in) in 3 triple DP ModÃ¨le 1936 turrets The 37 mm (1.5 in) zÃ©nithaux quadruple mountings would have had to be repositioned amidships between the fore and after towers, because on the quarterdeck â as on the Clemenceau â they would have been excessively exposed to the blast from the aft main turret. [lower-alpha 2], The 380 mm (15 in) shell was an Armour Piercing Capped (APC) shell, registered in the French Navy as Obus de Perforation (OPf), a further development of the 330 mm (13 in) OPf Model 1935, in use on the Dunkerque. Before 1943 refit She soon took the President of the French Republic in an official visit to Copenhagen, and went on to Oslo. System 2, in the central position, was for anti-ship gunnery and had a 8-meter (26 ft) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder. [lower-alpha 5], But neither France nor Italy were intending to build battleships similar to the most recent American, British, or Japanese battleships: very heavily armed and armored. The main turrets were protected with a 405 mm (15.9 in) thick armor on the barbette; 430 mm (17 in) armor on the faces, inclined to 30Â°; from 170 mm (6.7 in) to 195 mm (7.7 in) on the roof; 270 mm (11 in) on the turret I rear wall; and 260 mm (10 in) on the turret II rear wall. 8 x 380mm (15 inch)/45 ModÃ¨le 1935 guns in quadruple mounts at bow The projectile passed through 150mm and 40mm armored decks and 7mm flooring of the … On 18 June, in the early morning, new orders were received to provide a colonial withdrawal.  While she was passing down the Straits of Malacca on 9 September, at 07:44 a magnetic mine detonated 17 metres (19 yd) to starboard. Their powerful anti-aircraft artillery in sixteen 105 mm (4.1 in) guns in eight double turrets, plus numerous 37 mm (1.5 in) and 20 mm (0.79 in) mountings, controlled by six high-angle directors was unmatched anywhere; officially declared as 35,000 long tons (35,562 t), their displacement was actually more than 42,000 long tons (42,670 t) standard and even nearing 50,000 tonnes (49,210 long tons) full load. This long delay was the consequence of the difficult social climate in France, in 1936, but also of the British Government representations, which urged a slowing down of construction, as following the 1922 Treaty of Washington and 1930 Treaty of London, France would have had to expect 1 January 1937, to outpass the 70,000 tons global tonnage limit for new battleships, including the Dunkerque class. When Richelieu left for France, the crew received congratulations from General Leclerc, the French Commanding General in Indochina. , The weight of one barrel was 110 tonnes (108 long tons). A total of 832 APC shells were intended to be provided, slightly fewer than for the Dunkerque-class battleships (896 rounds).  The Italian Littorio- class battleships had a peculiar underwater protection system, designed by the Italian chief designer, Generale Ispettore del Genio Navale Pugliese, which incorporated a 3.8-meter (12 ft) diameter cylindrical expansion space. HE shells (100 mm (3.9 in) OEA Model 1928, weighing 135 kilograms (298 lb)) would be used on aerial targets, with a muzzle velocity of 780 meters per second (2,600 ft/s) and a 10,000 meters (33,000 ft) ceiling (at the 80Â° maximum elevation). For the artillery, the crew of the No. Based on the studies of 1938's Project C, new battleship designs emerged that led to the so-called Province or later Alsace-class battleships that were never even ordered. , The French designers of the Richelieu had various constraints: a 33 meters (108 ft) beam to accommodate the barbettes of four 380 mm (15 in) gun turrets, a 245 meters (804 ft) long hull, limited by the length of the Navy shipbuilding infrastructure, and thus a length/beam ratio of 7.3 to 1. The overall anti-aircraft armament was massively reinforced, with 48 20 mm (0.79 in) AA guns in single mounts replacing the original 13.2 mm (0.52 in) Hotchkiss machine guns, and 14 quad 40 mm (1.6 in) turrets replacing the original 37 mm (1.5 in) semi-automatic guns. , The French Naval Board in April 1935 resolved to fit the Richelieu with five 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets in the same placement as for the 130 mm (5.1 in) battery on the Dunkerque. On 24 April 1941, the Richelieu could sail at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) on three engines, the fourth propeller having been removed. As on the Dunkerque-class battleships, the systems provided raw target data to the transmitting station located beneath the armored decks, with continuous transmission to the director and the guns. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Richelieu in 1940â1942: Then, after the oceanic submarine BÃ©vÃ©ziers damaged HMS Resolution, Force M withdrew. In April 1940, first speed trials were carried out, and during one hour 30 knots were maintained developing 123,000 shp. In every case, with three turrets there would have been a weight excess in comparison with two quadruple turrets, and in consequence a propulsion plant power reduced to 100,000 horsepower (74.6 MW) and a speed loss of 2.5 knots (4.6 km/h; 2.9 mph), for a small benefit of distributing the main armament over a greater length. The first post-World War I battleship of the French Navy, Dunkerque, was ordered in 1932. 7. Jan 1, 2019 - A tribute to my grandad Armand, who served in transmissions on French Battleship Richelieu during WWII. A single axial catapult would have had its pedestal countersunk in the quarterdeck, with an internal hangar in a recess under the first deck and a lift to hoist the seaplanes to the first deck level in order to avoid the blast effects of the rear 380 mm (15 in) turret firing, which also would have required positioning one deck higher the aft 381 mm (15.0 in) turret, on the Vittorio Veneto-class battleships. , The fourth unit, the planned Gascogne, was intended to be laid down in the "Jean Bart dock" at Saint-Nazaire as soon as the Jean Bart would have freed the building dock to be transferred in the nearby fitting-out dock, which was done on 6 March 1940. Each set comprised a single High Pressure (27 kg/cmÂ²) turbine, a Medium Pressure (10 kg/cmÂ²) turbine, and two Low Pressure two-flow rotor turbines (4 kg/cmÂ² and 1.25 kg/cmÂ²). On the Richelieu, the planned ammunition load was 2000 SAP shells, nearly 1000 HE shells, and 650 illuminating shells, for the three triple turrets fitted.  During this operation, Captain Merveilleux du Vignaux, new Commanding Officer since the beginning of May, decided, due to the shortcomings of the U.S. manufactured powder charges, to use for combat actions the remaining French SD21 powder charges with standard AP shells. The ship was afloat in the fitting-out basin; however, this was separated from the navigational channel by an earth dam. Otherwise, the aviation facilities would have been the same as on the Richelieu. , Eight days later (on 24 July 1934), the French Navy Board set the new French battleships' specifications as follows:, Thirteen months later, the Service Technique des Constructions navales (S.T.C.N.) , The compartment outward of the inclined armor belt had a maximum depth of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft), and had a filling of Ã©bonite mousse. For short range anti-aircraft defence for Dunkerque-class battleships, the French Navy envisaged an automatic version (37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935) of the 37 mm (1.5 in) semi-automatic anti-aircraft turret with twin mountings (CAD Model 1933).  Then, she took part to the battleship force covering an aerial bombing of Port-Blair, in the Adaman Islands (Operation Pedal, 19â29 June). The aircraft were (flying boat) seaplanes of the Loire 130 type â single-engined (720 hp Hispano-Suiza 12-cylinder liquid cooled) with a 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb) weight, a 210 kilometres per hour (130 mph) maximum speed, a 165 kilometres per hour (103 mph) cruise speed at 1,500 meters (4,900 ft), two 75 mm (3.0 in) machine guns and two 75 kilograms (165 lb) bombs. Thirty-nine months between laying down and launching was not an impressive performance, as two years only had been necessary for Strasbourg, or King George V and Prince of Wales which were laid down on 1 January 1937 and launched respectively in February and May 1939, or Vittorio Veneto and Littorio laid down on 28 October 1934, and launched on 25 July and 22 August 1937. Each group of two turrets would have had a fire control system, with a 5-meter (16 ft) OPL rangefinder; for the forward groups this would be on each side of the fore tower, and for the aft turret groups it would be atop the after tower. The Salou #4 graving dock in the Brest Navy Yards was intended to be ready for building a new battleship in January 1939, when the Richelieu will have been be floated out, as all other building for large ships were in use. One of her guns is on display in the harbor of Brest. The triple 152 mm (6.0 in) Model 1936 Dual Purpose turret was a further development of the 152 mm (6.0 in) Model 1930 Low-Angle turret already proven on the French cruiser Ãmile Bertin and the La GalissonniÃ¨re-class 7600-ton cruisers, at least comparable to the German 15 cm (5.9 in) SK C/36 gun turrets, or the Italian triple 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets Model 1934 or 1936. The maximum width was around 7 meters (23 ft). France proved unable to counter both German and Italian navies, as the Versailles and Washington treaties allowed, but she believed the Dunkerque-class battleship was the answer to the Scharnhorst-class battleship, and the Richelieu-class battleships the answer to the Italian battleships Littorio and Vittorio Veneto. The loading mechanism was also prone to jamming at elevations above 45Â°. , On 8 November 1942, Allied landings in French North Africa (Operation Torch) begun. During WWII, there were no other 152 mm (6.0 in) guns used as an anti-aircraft battery; however, they were successfully used post-war in two Worcester-class U.S. Navy cruisers and three Tiger-class cruisers of the Royal Navy, albeit with much better RPC and fire-control devices than the pre-WWII French ones. , In April 1940, Richelieu went to sea for the first time. The components were the same, 22 meters (72 ft) trainable catapults operated with compressed air, which could launch a 3.5 tonnes (3.4 long tons) aircraft at 103 kilometres per hour (64 mph), and a recovery crane with a capacity of 4.5 tonnes (4.4 long tons). The maximum horizontal turning speed was 5Â°/s, and the maximum elevating speed 5.5Â°/s. 1 turret, one new-built 380 mm gun and three guns, constructed before 1940, intended for Jean Bart, which had been seized by the Germans during the war, two having been installed in shore batteries, in Norway and in Normandy, the third used for trials at the Krupp proving ground in Meppen, Germany. Ships.  During a careening in Toulon in 1951, she was fitted with French-built radar devices, and received one new-built 380 mm (15 in) gun and three guns seized by the Germans, two having been installed during the war in shore batteries in Norway and in Normandy, the third having been used for trials at the Krupp proving grounds in Meppen (Germany). On 21 September, Vice Admiral Lacroix, formerly Flag Officer of the Force de Raid 1st Light Squadron, who had been on the destroyer Mogador when she was damaged at Mers-el-KÃ©bir, was flown to Dakar to replace him. After two and a half years in tropical waters without docking, a shipyard overhaul was badly needed.  Consequently, the French Navy asked to quickly have a second Dunkerque-class battleship; she was included in the 1934 Estimates.. A heavier caliber had been considered for the main artillery, and was preferred by Adolf Hitler, since the Dunkerque-class battleships were armed with 330 mm (13 in) guns.  The main rudder servo-motors were completely unserviceable, the turbo-dynamos were severely shaken. Moreover these 100 mm (3.9 in) turrets would have been fully enclosed, with a 30 mm (1.2 in) plating against shrapnel. , Temporary repairs were completed in Dakar; some light anti-aircraft mountings were added, partly taken from the wreck of the destroyer Audacieux (severely damaged by a heavy cruiser during the battle). Placed in the reserve fleet in 1958, she was in 1968 decommissioned and sold to Italian ship scrappers. Richelieu in 1943: During the night, a commando of Royal Marines, under Lieutenant-Commander Bristowe, succeeded to drop furtively, from a fast motor boat, four depth grenades under the stern of Richelieu, but the grenades did not explode. The middle level (veille Ã©loignÃ©e), for both surface and aerial contacts, was on platform 6, and the upper lookout station (veille haute), primarily for spotting torpedoes and mines, was on platform 9. Her 152 mm (6.0 in) secondary battery was also not yet installed, and it was replaced by anti-aircraft machine guns. The maximum of nine guns corresponded to a battery of three triple turrets, as announced by the Stefani News agency for the new Italian battleships.  On 29 December, she sailed for France, and arrived in Toulon on 11 February 1946. In normal war circumstances, this event would have had catastrophic consequences. Consequently, it was not reasonable to keep the Salou building dock empty for at least six months, waiting to start building a Project B design battleship which necessitated at least one year to come up with definitive drawings after it had been ordered.  Instead of completing her as designed, it was proposed in May 1943 to complete her with only one main artillery turret, using 340 mm (13 in) guns taken on the French battleship Lorraine that had joined the Allied forces (after she had stayed from 1940 to 1943 in Alexandria). , The maximum fuel load for peace-time cruising was 5,866 tonnes (5,773 long tons), but in wartime this figure was reduced to 4,700 tonnes (4,600 long tons) to maximize the underwater protection system's effectiveness, since filling the liquid loading compartments to the brim created additional pressure on bulkheads instead of absorbing the pressure of explosion. Jean Bart in 1955: Therefore, an improved gun (28 cm SK C/34), with a longer barrel and higher muzzle velocity but the same 280 mm (11 in) caliber, was reluctantly chosen. Mr. Louis Kahn, Chief Naval Constructor, French Navy, who had designed the Joffre-class aircraft carrier in the late 1930s, presented a project for a transformation into an aircraft carrier operating forty/fifty-four planes, for a cost of 5 billion Francs, and with a delay of five years or less. The anti-aircraft battery was reinforced, by some 13.2 mm Browning MG mountings and four twin 37 mm CAD Model 1933 mountings, some being removed from the damaged destroyer L'Audacieux, but the 152 mm turrets were not able yet to fire on aerial targets.  But the battleship staff had a sharp memory of the 1940 fights, as, during the demonstrations for the battleship's arrival in New York, Captain Deramont left the grand stand when General de Gaulle's representative, Adrien Tixier, reminded that the Free French had not stopped fighting the enemy for three years. Ordered in 1935, and designed to counter the Italian Littorio-class battleships, Richelieu was the first French 35,000-ton battleship. The lower lookout station (veille basse) for close-range contacts was on platform 3 of the fore tower. The ship was equipped with 380 mm guns, had a high speed, strong armor and very good torpedo protection. The reduction of 0.5 meters (1.6 ft) comparing with Dunkerque was necessary to accommodate three boilers side by side in the boiler rooms..  Only HMS Hood, and the two Renown-class battlecruisers could catch the Deutschland and her sister ships.. The third day, as HMS Resolution had been struck by a torpedo from a French submarine, the British and Free French force retreated.  Escorted by the Adroit-class destroyers Fougueux and Frondeur, she reached Dakar on 23 June 1940. Retarding devices were installed on the outer guns at Cherbourg in March 1948 : a delay of sixty milliseconds, corresponding to a distance of 50 m (160 ft) between shells, reduced the dispersal of two-thirds, which was observed during gunnery trials at Mers-el-Kebir, in May 1948.  The Italian Littorio had a thicker armored belt (350 mm (14 in)) than the Richelieu, but otherwise they were less protected, with 350 mm (14 in) on the main artillery turrets, 260 mm (10 in) on the conning tower, 50 mm (2.0 in) on the upper armored deck and 100 mm (3.9 in) on the main deck. She remained with only two rangefinders on the fore tower, and the rear mast was shortened. It was submitted to the Minister 14 August, accepted on 31 August, and laid down 22 October 1935 to become Richelieu. Soon after, she was based in Brest. The rate of fire was 6.5 rounds per minute, against sea targets, and 5 rpm against aircraft. The French Navy Board (the Conseil SupÃ©rieur de la Marine, the French equivalent to the British Board of Admiralty) unanimously recommended on 25 June 1934 to leave the 1934 naval building plan unchanged, and to order the building of a new Dunkerque-class battleship with improved vertical (belt) armor: the Strasbourg's laying down was ordered on July 16, 1934. . A so-called "escalator clause" had been included at the American negotiators' urging, allowing the signatory countries of the Second London Treaty (France, the United Kingdom and the United States) to raise the battleship main battery caliber limit from 14 inches (356 mm) to 16 inches (406 mm), and the limit for battleship displacement from 35,000 tons to 45,000 tons, if Japan or Italy still refused to sign after April 1, 1937. The bow and the stern, built separately, were attached there since the Salou graving dock was only 200 meters (660 ft) long. As the airfields in Japanese hands of Car-Nicobar and of the Adaman Islands represented a threat on the western flank of the Allied operations in Burma, they were bombed in late April to early May (Operation Bishop, 27 April â 7 May 1945 ). France used the Anglo-German Naval Agreement , which Britain had unilaterally signed with Nazi Germany (and in the process effectively nullified the naval disarmament clauses of the Treaty of Versailles ) in June 1935 to dismiss British objections to the new ships. She featured a main armament of eight 380 mm guns in two quadruple turrets in forward superfiring positions. They saw service during World War II, first under Vichy control in Dakar (1940) and Casablanca (1942), then under the Allies' control, the Richelieu participating in British Home Fleet and Eastern Fleet operations and supporting the French forces' return to Indochina in late 1945. Its aim was to enable the French Navy to counter the navies of both Italy and Germany. This rearrangement of armament also would result in a shift of superstructures forward so that these were now mounted almost exactly midships and no longer at a considerable distance aft of the midship position as in the first Richelieu-class units. 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In Dakar land near Rufisque, 25 km south-east of Dakar to join British! Auxiliary patrol boat French North Africa ( Operation Torch ) begun, she was used as an accommodation ship Brest... 90 ] she left Trincomalee on 27 July torpedoed Richelieu, at Dakar, and moored the. ) secondary battery was installed abeam the superstructures, on 24 February 1941, three fire control system very... The 100 mm ( 6.0 in ) shell was originally to have hit the charges... Ordered two units, the French battleship was dependent on American ammunition supply of. There were two fire control systems were mounted one over the other atop fore... Part in operations near the cost of Norway and served into the 1960s version of the Richelieu was by!
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