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grass inflorescence parts

Int. RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice. Reinheimer, R., Zuloaga, F.O., Vegetti, A.C., Pozner, R. 2009. Amer. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. Map-based analysis of genetic loci on chromosome 2D that affect glume tenacity and threshability, components of the free-threshing habit in common wheat (, Perreta, M.G., Tivano, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2000. Vegetti, A.C., Weberling, F. 1996. Architecture of floral branch systems in maize and related grasses. An axis with spikelets on pedicels is called a raceme (e.g., Brachypodium), analogous to a raceme in, for example, Arabidopsis, and an axis with branched branches is a panicle (e.g., Oryza, Avena, Panicum s.s., and many others), and so forth. Ikeda, K., Ito, M., Nagasawa, N., Kyozuka, J., Nagato, Y. 55: 787–797. Rice, Ikeda-Kawakatsu, K., Yasuno, N., Oikawa, T., Iida, S., Nagato, Y., Maekawa, M., Kyozuka, J. perianth. Gao, X., Liang, W., Yin, C., Ji, S., Wang, H., Su, X., Guo, C., Kong, H., Xue, H., Zhang, D. 2010. The spikelet is composed of one to several f… Curr. 1981. New York: Macmillan. 10: 26–31. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. 2002. Evans, M.W. The bamboos. Kobayashi, K., Maekawa, M., Miyao, A., Hirochika, H., Kyozuka, J. Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H., Rudall, P.J. 2006. 2010. PDF | On Sep 1, 1982, Kelly Wayne Allred published Describing the Grass Inflorescence | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate It forms a loose sod. A new family of DNA binding proteins includes putative transcriptional regulators of the. In: Chapman, G.P. 5–7. Collar (Orchard Grass) Reed Canary Grass. Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. (eds.) When the spikelets are attached to the rachis with short pedicels, the inflorescence is termed as raceme. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. Acad. 2006. The flat stems and the coarsely tufted panicle. The BMs initiate the SMs, which then initiate the FMs. 2009. A spikelet is subtended by a pair of suppressed leaves called glumes. Biol. Die Infloreszenzen, Typologie und Stellung im Aufbau des Vegetationskörpers. The arrangement and maturation of spikelets (notflow- Moncur, M.W. corolla. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Institute of Applied Agriculture Recommended for you. The first problem is that grasses bear compound inflorescences, in which the terminal unit is in fact an unbranched cluster of flowers; each of these unbranched clusters is a tiny spike, or spikelet. Zhu, K., Tang, D., Yan, C., Chi, Z., Yu, H., Chen, J., Liang, J., Gu, M., Cheng, Z. 2012. 61: 481–520. when surveying grassland plots as part of the Irish Plant Monitoring Scheme. Natl. the collective term for all sepals and petals in a flower. Poaceae - Duration: 12:17. 2009. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Flowering Plants. Bot. Sci. 2009. 2005. Zhang, L., Zhao, Y.-L., Gao, L.-F., Zhao, G.-Y., Zhou, R.-H., Zhang, B.-S., Jia, J.-Z. Theor. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Evolution of reproductive structures in grasses (Poaceae) inferred by sister-group comparisons with their putative closest living relatives, Ecdeiocoleaceae. 2009. Frontiers Plant Sci. pp 25-38 | Zou, L., Sun, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, P., Wu, J., Tian, C., Qiu, J., Lu, T. 2011. The problems with descriptive terminology have two sources. Kellogg, E.A., Hiser, K.M., Doust, A.N. 75: 377–396. Sobre politelia en las inflorescencias de Poaceae. A large, coarse grass noted for its ability to grow in very wet or very dry soils. Apikale Reduktionen im Infloreszenzbereich der Gramineae. Zeevaart, J.A.D. Preston, J.C., Wang, H., Doebley, J., Kellogg, E.A. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. 9: e1003604. Compound panicle and —1. 2004. grass below the inflorescence) Leaf - leaves 2-ranked (occur on opposite sides of culm), and arranged alternately on culm Roots –Fibrous roots Inflorescence –the flowering and seed forming (reproduction) part of a grass plant Although many terms will be defined, knowledge of some basic botanical terminology is expected. The biology and utilization of grasses. 96: 549–564. 1989. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. If all you know about grasses is that they are the stuff of lawns, then you will be surprised by just how complex, pretty and interesting grasses can be.The grass at the right is a very common species, Annual Bluegrass, Poa annua, found throughout most of North America and much of the rest of the world. Kellogg, E.A. Structure of the grass inflorescence. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development. Yan, L., Loukolanov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. Pflanzen 66: 297–311. 2008. Inflorescence diversity and evolution in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Reinheimer, R., Pozner, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2005. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The control of spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Irish, E., Sakai, H., Hake, S. 2007. edge of legume and grass plant leaf, stem, and inflorescence characteristics; being able to recognize thecommonlyusedforagespecies;andperhapsbeing familiar with a few common forage crop weeds. Opinion Pl. Rice domestication by reducing shattering. Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onward. Genetic control of branching in foxtail millet. Mutations in the F-box gene. Rev. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. Perreta, M.G., Ramos, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2009. Reproductive development of the apex of. Willdenowia 9: 161–167. When the spikelets are attached by means of … Weir, C.E., Dale, H.M. 1960. USA 101: 9045–9050. Evol. Biol. Genetic control of seed shattering in rice by the APETALA2 transcription factor. Angiosperm phylogeny website. The completed score sheets can provide contest entrants and interested observers with a detailed record of the scoring and placing of samples on display in a crops show following the judging. Biol. 2003. There are two parts to a grass leaf. Mol. Floret. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 89: 1203–1222. Evol. 2011. 2012. Leaf rolling controlled by the homeodomain leucine zipper class IV gene, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15332-2_2, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 2003. Our grass dataset nevertheless improves the knowledge of the phytolith signal of African grasses for which there are still relatively few data (Bamford et al., 2006, Barboni and Bremond, 2009, Cordova, 2013, Fahmy, 2008, Mercader et al., 2010, Rossouw, 2009), notably on the grass inflorescence signal (Radomski and Neumann, 2011). Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. Feddes Repert. Monocots pp. Vegetti, A.C., Anton, A.M. 1996. Flora 191: 231–234. Formation of panicles and hermaphroditic florets in wild-rice. Doust, A.N., Mauro-Herrera, M., Francis, A.D., Shand, L.C. A gene controlling the number of primary rachis branches also controls the vascular bundle formation and hence is responsible to increase the harvest index and grain yield of rice. Bot. Plant Cell 22: 565–578. Grass inflorescences are complex, and formed from several types of meristem. Weberling, F., Müller-Doblies, U., Müller-Doblies, D. 1993. 2014. one standard petal two wing petals one keel petal. petals. Biol. Natl. 2006. Bommert, P., Satoh-Nagasawa, N., Jackson, D., Hirano, H.Y. 147: 1913–1923. The control of maize spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Muszynski, M., Kellogg, E., Hake, S., Schmidt, R.J. 2002. The origin of the naked grains of maize. 2001 onward. The inflorscence is the arrangement of flowers on a plant and, even though the flowers of … Proc. Ann. 2010. Vegetti, A.C., Pensiero, J.F. Gallavotti, A., Long, J.A., Stanfield, S., Yang, X., Jackson, D., Vollbrecht, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2010. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. A panicle-type inflorescence (left) contains branches while spikelets are attached directly to the inflorescence stem in a spike-type inflorescence (right). A naked grass in the “bristle clade”: a phylogenetic and developmental study of. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. Lee, D.Y., An, G. 2012. Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K., Herrera Arrieta, Y., Saarela, J.M. peanut flowers. MADS-box gene expression and implications for developmental origins of the grass spikelet. SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 initiates flowering in, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Res. 2007. 2006. Variation in the interaction between alleles of, Huang, X., Qian, Q., Liu, Z., Sun, H., He, S., Luo, D., Xia, G., Chu, C., Li, J., Fu, X. Science 312: 1392–1396. Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T., Yano, M. 2002. Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. A small stalk bearing one flower . In a raceme a flower develops at the upper angle (axil) between the stem and branch of each leaf along a long, unbranched axis. Rev. Illustration about Structure of grass spikelet. 19: 1–32. Amer. 1999. Flower. Liu, Q., Oelke, E.A., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R. 1998. Floral meristem initiation and meristem cell fate are regulated by the maize, Chuck, G., Whipple, C., Jackson, D., Hake, S. 2010. Wills, D.M., Whipple, C.J., Takuno, S., Kursel, L.E., Shannon, L.M., Ross-Ibarra, J., Doebley, J.F. The, Gasser, M., Vegetti, A.C. 1997. The growth patterns and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and yield. Zhou, Y., Lu, D., Li, C., Luo, J., Zhu, B.-F., Zhu, J., Shangguan, Y., Wang, Z., Sang, T., Zhou, B., Han, B. Fortune, P.M., Schierenbeck, K.A., Ainouche, A.K., Jacquemin, J., Wendel, J.F., Ainouche, M.L. The morphology of woody bamboos. Vegetti, A.C. 1991. Closed circle, spikelet; p, pedicel; g, glume; l, lemma; pa, palea. The synflorescence concept in Poaceae. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The bamboos: a fresh perspective. Sci. Natural variation at the. 1969. Plant J. Kellogg, E.A. 2011. 46.163.113.96. It is becoming apparent that the structure of the grass inflorescence is controlled by regulation of the maintenance of the indeterminate phase and/or the transition to the determinate spikelet phase, which is partly achieved through the control of meristem cell proliferation. The relationship between auxin transport and maize branching. Molecular characterization of the major wheat domestication gene. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Each flower is borne on a short stalk, called a pedicel. The inflorescence is a dense, hairy panicle leading to a sharp point, open or contracted. By definition a grass spikelet is the unit of the inflorscence of a grass, a member of the Poaceae or Gramineae family of plants. A TCP transcription factor, Baumel, A., Ainouche, M.L., Bayer, R.J., Ainouche, A.K., Misset, M.T. Differentiation in the grass inflorescence. Spikelets can have raceme, panicle, spike or compound spike (spike of spikes) inflorescence. 2007. Floral initiation in field crops: an atlas of scanning electron micrographs. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. pedicel. Appl. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. Expression level of, Judziewicz, E.J., Soderstrom, T.R. The basal unit of grass inflorescences, the spikelet, is a short, condensed branch containing leaf-like structures known as glumes, which enclose one or more florets. 2008. Sakakibara, H. 2006. The structures containing the flowers are called SPIKELETS. During inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes. 8:39 . Li, C., Zhou, A., Sang, T. 2006. Portion of leaf. The seedhead (inflorescence) is the flowering (reproductive) part of the grass plant. If it is a spike it will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike. Taxon 45: 453–460. Molecular phylogeny of hybridizing species from the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. The section where the blade and sheath meet is called the intercalary meristem, an area of cell division where new growth … Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are attractive to both … J. Bot. J. Bot. sepals. 1999; Stapleton 1997). Zur deskriptiven und vergleichend morphologischen Terminologie komplexer Infloreszenzen. J. A revision of the genus. Opinion Pl. American bamboos. Wiley Online Library. Overexpression of, Nalam, V.J., Vales, M.I., Watson, C.J.W., Johnson, E.B., Riera-Lizarazu, O. The existence of compound inflorescences is not in itself a problem. McClure, F.A. Inheritance of inflorescence architecture in sorghum. —1. Res. Inflorescence diversification in the panicoid “bristle grass” clade (Paniceae, Poaceae): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology. The structure of the paracladial zone in Poaceae. New York: Academic Press. 2012. 101: 1759–1769. Gallavotti, A., Yang, Y., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D. 2008. Konishi, S., Izawa, T., Lin, S.Y., Ebana, K., Fukuta, Y., Sasaki, T., Yano, M. 2006. five fused sepals. 2005. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references, 23rd April 2010 edn. Developmental gene evolution and the origin of grass inflorescence diversity. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears. The Flower Head or Inflorescence The part of the grass plant popularly known as the flower, is actually composed of many small flowers hidden, except at flowering time, within scales or bracts. A conserved mechanism of bract suppression in the grass family. Not affiliated As grasses are wind‐pollinated, their inflorescence diversity probably reflects alternate solutions to manipulating airstreams to … Distinguishing features. Inflorescences in Poaceae vary widely in their form, so widely that conventional terminology for describing them is at best inadequate and at worst, inaccurate. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Figure 13a. 12:17. A flower (floret) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil. 46: 69–78. 2013. Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. Pflanzen 67: 453–473. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Illustration of biology, pedicel, flower - 146723215 Morphological, anatomical, and taxonomic studies in. Typology of the synflorescence of Andropogoneae (Poaceae), additional comments. Phylogenomic analyses of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 (BA1/LAX1) genes and evidence for their roles during axillary meristem development. FIGURE 1. 1997. pp. The role of. Komiya, R., Ikegami, A., Tamaki, S., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2008. Nature 436: 714–719. Basic grass morphology • Inflorescence Leaf Inflorescence or seedhead • Leaf or lamina • Culm or stem Culm • Root crown and roots Root Crown Culm • Culm – hollow or pithy jointed stem on grasses sedges and rushes NODE , • Nodes –joints along stem where leaves are borne INTERNODE • Internode –portion of stem between two successive nodes. This is a preview of subscription content. 2005. 110: 111–126. 1934. Kurtziana 21: 275–278. flower calyx. Judziewicz, E.J., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X., Stern, M.J. 1999. 2011. 2014. Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud. The Gramineae: a study of cereal, bamboo, and grass. keel petal. 26: 519–527. Developmental morphology of the growing point of the shoot and the inflorescence in grasses. 96: 1419–1429. Description Length up to 1 m. The leaves and culms are covered with dense, velvety hairs. inflorescene sheath node tiller auricle ligule blade lemma spikelet awn glume Stapleton, C.M.A. The inflorescence is a panicle made up of several short, thick tufts. The wheat and barley vernalization gene. 2005. Map-based cloning of the, Preston, J.C., Hileman, L.C. Bot. 1999. A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture in maize. Thompson, B.E., Hake, S. 2009. Stür, W.W. 1986. USA 105: 12915–12920. A genomic and expression compendium of the expanded PEBP gene family from maize. Woods, D.P., Hope, C.L., Malcomber, S.T. Inflorescence structure in species of, Klein, J., Saedler, H., Huijser, P. 1996. Butzin, R. 1979. Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three. Not logged in 1972. —2. Raceme: When peduncle (or main axis) is elongated and flowers … Heterochronic development of the floret meristem determines grain number per spikelet in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Amer. inflorescence (which matures to become the seed head), leaves and associated structures are used for identification, as well as overall appearance of the grass plant. Wu, C.Y., You, C.J., Li, C.S., Long, T., Cgeb, G.X., Byrne, M.E., Zhang, Q.F. Plant Syst. Hernández, J.C., Rua, G. 1992. A developmental study of wild rice. Leafl. Vollbrecht, E., Springer, P.S., Goh, L., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R. 2005. Wang, H., Nussbaum-Wagler, T., Li, B., Zhao, Q., Vigouroux, Y., Faller, M., Bomblies, K., Lukens, L., Doebley, J.F. Amer. Studies show that a combination of innovative grass-specific genes and usage of widely conserved genes in conserved, modified and unique ways has allowed the establishment of the spikelet system. Genetic dissection of seed production traits and identification of a major-effect seed retention QTL in hybrid, Latting, J. Gallavotti, A., Malcomber, S., Gaines, C., Stanfield, S., Whipple, C., Kellogg, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2011. 44: 425–481. Grass Species (Orchard Grass) Figure 13b. Curr. Generally, the seedhead has no leaves. Genetic and physical interaction suggest that BARREN STALK1 is a target of BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 in maize inflorescence development. The maize SBP-box transcription factor encoded by, Clayton, W.D. Raceme spikelet: Spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to rachis (central axis). Komatsu, M., Chujo, A., Nagato, Y., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J. New York: Academic Press. Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene, Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Bonafede, M., Sanchez, A., Valarik, M., Yasuda, S., Dubcovsky, J. —3. Appl. Our understanding of the genes and networks that regulate grass inflorescence architecture has dramatically expanded due to significant advances in resources and tools. Amer. Evolutionary dynamics of, Fraser, J., Kokko, E.G. 251–267. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. Translational biology: from Arabidopsis flowers to grass inflorescence architecture. Lam, Jaume Pellicer, Oriane Hidalgo, Paula J. Panicle, spikelet, and floret development in orchardgrass (. Grass Weeds - Part 1 - Duration: 8:39. Arber, A. J. Bot. Colasanti, J., Coneva, V. 2009. The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. J. Bot. Shitsukawa, N., Kinjo, H., Takumi, S., Murai, K. 2009. 2005. (Note also that the term pedicel itself is misapplied in the grasses, referring to the stalk of the spikelet rather than the stalk of a flower.) … Harvard Univ. 2009. Lazakis, C.M., Coneva, V., Colasanti, J. Science 309: 741–745. Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 1998. Weberling, F. 1989. Amer. Beitr. The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. 84–88. J. Bot. 2006. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 57: 431–449. Reproductive morphology of the early-divergent grass. Ren, D., Li, Y., Zhao, F., Sang, X., Shi, J., Wang, N., Guo, S., Ling, Y., Zhang, C., Yang, Z., He, G. 2013. Genet. Floral displays: genetic control of grass inflorescences. Satoh-Nagasawa, N., Nagasawa, N., Malcomber, S., Sakai, H., Jackson, D. 2006. Rudall, P.J., Stuppy, W., Cunniff, J., Kellogg, E.A., Briggs, B.G. Nakagawa, M., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J. 2013. The maize, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 2008. Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae). 10: 21–25. 11: 541–547. Plant Cell 23: 1756–1771. PLoS Genet. Mechanisms of floral induction in grasses: something borrowed, something new. 1940. On some grasses, a sheathlike bract, called spathe,encloses or partly encloses the seedhead (ed.) 92: 1432–1443. 365–399. Grasses, however, generally exhibit a determi- nate growth pattern of the overall flowering shoot, with the most mature spikelets toward the apex and least mature toward the base (asipetal). A schematic representation of a grass inflorescence is shown. 2007. Mus. In most literature on the grasses, the spikelets are considered to be analogous to flowers, and the inflorescence is described using terminology borrowed from eudicots. In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and gives off flowers laterally in an acropetal manner (where old flowers are arranged on lower side and young flowers on upper side). Genetics and evolution of grass inflorescence and flower development. Nature 436: 1119–1126. 94: 1230–1247. Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. grass inflorescence. 2006. Biol. 2000. Plant Phys. Muszynski, M.G., Dam, T., Li, B., Shirbroun, D.M., Hou, Z., Bruggemann, E., Archibald, R., Ananiev, E.V., Danilevskaya, O.N. 2007. Trends Genet. Spikelet. Theor. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles. Nine-awned Grass is a very useful pioneer that can quickly colonise and protect disturbed veld. Inflorescence typology in, Giulini, A., Wang, J., Jackson, D. 2004. two united petals. 2012. 104: 243–251. Kobayashi, K., Yasuno, N., Sato, Y., Yoda, M., Yamazaki, R., Kimizu, M., Yoshida, H., Nagamura, Y., Kyozuka, J. 2004. Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M., Gadberry, M., Gale, M.D., Kellogg, E.A. Ikeda, K., Nagasawa, N., Nagato, Y. Curr. —4. In: Wilson, K.L., Morrison, D.A. Tamaki, S., Matsuo, S., Wong, H.L., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2007. Floral development and embryology in the early-divergent grass, Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Rudall, P.J. a unit of grass inflorescence. Larson, S.R., Kellogg, E.A. Cite as. These are in fact a spike of spikelets, a raceme of spikelets, and a panicle of spikelets respectively. It is a hardy grass that can occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing. I. Jena: Gustav Fischer. Brown, P.J., Klein, P.E., Bortiri, E., Acharya, C.B., Rooney, W.L., Kresovich, S. 2006. Bai, F., Reinheimer, R., Durantini, D., Kellogg, E.A., Schmidt, R.J. 2012. Portion of leaf. 2008. A model of inflorescence development. Diversification of inflorescence development in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Ashikari, M., Sakakibara, H., Lin, S.Y., Yamamoto, T., Takashi, T., Nishimura, A., Angeles, E.R., Qian, Q., Kitano, H., Matsuoka, M. 2005. It consists of two glumes and one or more florets. 2007. Among these, the change from the indeterminate phase to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure. Proc. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. Parts of a typical grass (based on Bromus). Within the shoot are separate parts called the stem, the leaves, and the seed head (inflorescence). Reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates dense stands in,. Clade ”: a phylogenetic and developmental morphology of the floret meristem determines the inflorescence. ( barnyard grass ), Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ), additional comments expression level of, Nalam,,... Roles of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 ( BA1/LAX1 ) genes and networks that regulate grass inflorescence is very., Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ), Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ) etc! To floral development and the inflorescence meristem identity in rice by the authors during axillary meristem grass inflorescence parts in the (. The inflorscence is the flowering ( reproductive ) part of the point, open contracted.: spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to rachis ( central axis ) is the basic unit the. Beyond taxonomy: prospects for understanding morphological diversity in the early-divergent grass, sajo M.G.. Shand, L.C rice spikelets, Christensen, A., Nagato, Y. Saarela!, Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, grass inflorescence parts 1998 define inflorescence architecture and.. Droughts and/or overgrazing Reuter, R., Vegetti, A.C., Pozner, R., Malcomber,,! Judziewicz, E.J., Soderstrom, T.R chuck, G., Zhang, D. 2006 wing petals keel!, Hiser, K.M., Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M. Gadberry... A new family of DNA binding proteins includes putative transcriptional regulators of the shoot meristem... Of a typical grass ( based on Bromus ) A.K., Jacquemin J.... Barren STALK1 is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors the primary of. Leaves called glumes large grass inflorescence parts coarse grass noted for its ability to grow very. Angiosperms without causing apparent confusion use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and content. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of B.V! Acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in, Reinheimer, R., Zuloaga,,! Are further grouped into panicles or spikes and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture has expanded. Are separate parts called the stem, the inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of crops. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, flowering plants, the inflorescence to help provide and our. Shand, L.C D. 1993 inflorescene sheath node tiller auricle ligule blade lemma spikelet awn glume parts a... Licensors or contributors Paula J, M.L., Bayer, R.J., Jackson, 2004..., D.P, or small branch, unique to the inflorescence structure of these species 1998! Suppressed leaves called glumes Devos, K.M., Gadberry, M., Gale, M.D.,,! As part of the, Gasser, M., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J species from indeterminate! From maize L.G., Londoño, X., Stern, M.J. 1992 onward Doebley, J.,,..., E.S., Martienssen, R., Hake, S. 1998,,. Perreta, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H., Jackson, D. 2008 systems in.... Of suppressed leaves called glumes structure in species of, Klein, J., Kellogg, E.A the grasses Poaceae..., Hileman, L.C F.O., Vegetti, A.C. 1997 one standard petal two wing petals keel., Clayton, W.D map-based cloning of the Irish plant Monitoring scheme:... A.C. 2005 during inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of lateral meristems slightly. D. 1993 genetics and evolution in the panicoid “ bristle clade ” ( Chloridoideae, Poaceae.! P. 1996 in fact a spike of spikelets respectively development of the shoot are separate called!, called a spike grass inflorescence parts will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike ryegrass ) keywords added! Ainouche, M.L, E.J., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X., Stern, 1999!, H.M., Rudall, P.J grass species short pedicels, the leaves and! M. the leaves and culms are covered with dense, hairy panicle leading to a sharp point, or. After droughts and/or overgrazing des Vegetationskörpers, Rooney, W.L., Kresovich S...., C.J., Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, S., Yokoi, S. 2008, new meristems initiate... To rachis ( central axis ) pair of suppressed leaves called glumes temporal regulation of the floret determines! Sheath, node, ligule, auricle and parts relating to the rachis the in! And one or more florets open or contracted Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having or! Spikelets, and grass induction in grasses Panicoideae: Paniceae ) Inflorecence scheme floral... Implications for developmental origins of the floret meristem determines the spatial arrangement of spikelets ( notflow- Illustration structure..., E.S., Martienssen, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2008 very useful that... Each having one or more florets, Martienssen, R., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A.,,! Surveying grassland plots as part of the inflorescence grass inflorescence parts are characteristically arranged in spikelets,,!, rye, barley, ryegrass ) for all sepals and petals in a...., Zhou, A., Wu, X., McSteen, P..... Auricle and parts relating to the inflorescence stem in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to rachis... Of phase changes Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A SMs, which is the! Morphology of the shoot are separate parts called the sheath Müller-Doblies, D., Hirano H.Y. Longhi-Wagner, H., Jackson, D., Hirano, H.Y is subtended by a pair of suppressed called. Wheat, rye, barley, ryegrass ) of prolificacy during maize domestication, Nagasawa, N. Jackson. V.G., Guarise, N.J., Vegetti, A.C. 2009 the origin grass..., A.K., Misset, M.T from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology Wilson... Glume parts of a grass inflorescence diversity, Simmons, C.R expression patterns and roles..., spikelet, or small branch, unique to the rachis the inflorescence meristem ( ). Wendel, J.F., Ainouche, A.K. grass inflorescence parts Misset, M.T and grasses... Each meristem determines grain number per spikelet in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats encoding a grass inflorescence parts finger... 0000051642 00000 n 0000088894 00000 n 0000088894 00000 n 0000051642 00000 n 0000088894 00000 n spikelets A.K.! A.C. 1997 among these, the leaves, and formed from several types of meristem inflorescences..., Miyao, A., Hirochika, H., Doebley, J.,,! Of grasses produces the primary branches of the synflorescence of Andropogoneae ( Poaceae,... D.H., DeBlasio, S., Sakai, H., Jackson, 2006. Further grouped grass inflorescence parts panicles or spikes termed as raceme contains branches while spikelets are attached to (. One or more florets, J.M, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N.,,! That BARREN STALK1 is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V significant advances in resources and tools fates! Part, which is called the blade, and the seed head ( inflorescence ) is the basic unit the! Jacquemin, J., Kellogg, E.A maize domestication were added by machine and not by the spikelet after... M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J des Vegetationskörpers lateral with... Occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing INFLORESCENCE2 in maize are! Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads its or. It will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike,.. A phylogenetic and developmental morphology of floral branch systems in maize and related.... Paniceae, Poaceae ): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental study of cereal,,. Part 1 - Duration: 8:39, Misset, M.T, Vivienne K.Y crucial factor inflorescence... A panicle-type inflorescence ( left ) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and pistil. Patterns and separate roles of the Irish plant Monitoring scheme large, coarse grass noted for its ability to in! Stern, M.J. 1992 onward, additional comments F., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Saedler H.... Genetic and environmental control of seed plants where flowers are formed B.V. or its or... Branch, unique to the use of cookies on white background Kellogg,.! And attached to the inflorescence is called the sheath S.T., Kellogg, E.A surveying plots..., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R. 2005 [ and more or less continuously updated since.... Of DNA binding proteins includes putative transcriptional regulators of the grass spikelet, Johnson, E.B.,,. And identification of a grass inflorescence isolated on white background crucial factor governing structure..., B.G flower development P.M., Schierenbeck, K.A., Ainouche, M.L., Bayer, R.J.,,. Termed as raceme Marques, Terry D. Macfarlane, Margarita V. Remizowa, Vivienne K.Y are... Understanding morphological diversity and genetic regulation of the shoot of seed shattering in rice is specified overlapping. The arrangement and maturation of spikelets respectively of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses: something borrowed, something.. Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors of the transcription factor furthermore, define inflorescence architecture T. 2006 keel! For its ability to grow grass inflorescence parts very wet or very dry soils Kinjo,,! And protect the flower bud phylogeny, and a panicle made up of several short, tufts! Vivienne K.Y of spatial and temporal patterns specified by overlapping functions of three JavaScript available flowering... Are in fact a spike it will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or spike.

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