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classical music period

Numerous Romantic composers excelled in concise forms of strong melodic-harmonic import, variously entitled Impromptu, Nocturne, Song Without Words, Ballade, Capriccio, Prelude, Étude, etc. The greatest composers of the classical period are Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791). Characteristics of Classical Music The music of the Baroque came directly before the Classical period and many of its features flowed naturally into the newly emerging Classical period. Can you go from the Brandenberg Concertos to Peter Gabriel by way of Ziggy Elman? What does the word "Classical" mean in this context? Confronted with the task of writing in the Beethovenian manner, a great master like Schumann, who had created the near-perfect, totally Romantic suite Carnaval, Opus 9 (1835), was clearly out of his element: the development of his Symphony No. It preceded the Romantic era, making it the fourth of the six major periods of Western classical music. Franz Liszt, in the free-wheeling forms of his symphonic poems, simply pursued the individualistic line to its ultimate consequences, severing whatever tenuous ties to traditional structures the works of his immediate predecessors had still maintained. As in the late Renaissance, harmony once again furnished the primary expressive means. Much of the music of the period centred around the Holy Christian Church with early sacred music being used to serve Biblical texts. A string quartet. The Great collection of Classic Music.Discover classical music and find out more about the best classical composers, musicians and their works. The term Classical is often used to describe music that is not rock, pop, jazz or another style. The new style was also encouraged by changes in the economic order and social structure. The c ourt orchestra of Mannheim was the most famous one at the time, and hence influenced the musical styles of many composers, including Hayden and Mozart. 2. The Free Music Archive offers free downloads under Creative Commons and other licenses. The period is characterized by balance and symmetry. This article is about the specific period from 1730 to 1820. But eventually the general fascination with comprehensive knowledge, sparked by the French Encyclopédie, inspired at first sporadic, then ever more numerous, volumes dealing progressively with all aspects of composition. As the masses started to pay for concerts, composers were provided with the freedom to write music which they desired, as long as it appealed to the public. During the ensuing 19th century the rapid institutionalization of musical education in the image of the National Conservatory of Music in Paris, created while the French Revolution was still raging, added further to the academic systematization of all musical studies along lines that have essentially remained in force. The period is generally eight measures long and contains two four-measure phrases, called antecedent and consequent.. Also active in this period were Rossini and Paganini. The classical period is between the baroque and romantic periods. As such it served its purpose throughout the 18th century, while harmony continued to be taught as the art of accompaniment—i.e., the improvised realization of a figured bass. As a solo instrument, the harpsichord was replaced by the piano (or fortepiano). Classical Era music didn't generate itself in a vacuum. It highlights the lives of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven and descr The Classical period itself lasted from approximately 1775 to 1825. The 15 most famous tunes in classical music. The Romantic composer viewed himself basically as a poet who manipulated musical sounds instead of words. Give it a try with this quiz. Music from this period is orderly, balanced and clear. The concerto grosso (a concerto for more than one musician) began to be replaced by the solo concerto (a concerto featuring only one soloist), and therefore began to place more importance on the particular soloist’s ability to show off. This was a spur to having primarily simple parts to play, and in the case of a resident virtuoso group, a spur to writing spectacular, idiomatic parts for certain instruments, as in the case of the Mannheim orchestra. The best-k… Johann Joseph Fux’s famous Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus), published first in Latin in 1725 and subsequently in every important modern language, was still basically a didactic treatise on counterpoint abstracted from 16th-century practice. Though this period didn’t add any maj… The Renaissance was the first epoch in European intellectual history to recognize that the greatness of a composer rests upon his inherent talent and unique personal style, and that genius supersedes both experience and the observance of theoretical precepts. Melodies tended to be shorter than those of baroque music, with clear-cut phrases and clearly marked cadences. At first, following earlier 18th-century custom, Haydn wrote strictly treble-dominated compositions with a simplified bass (as compared with the more varied basso continuo); then, with the six Sun Quartets, Opus 20, dating from the early 1770s, he defied precedent and concluded each work with a fugue in the “learned style” of Handel. They are a fantastic way to show off the virtuosic skill of the performer. Clockwise from top left: Turandot (Puccini), Pavarotti, Mozart, Torvill and Dean dance to Ravel's Boléro, Rossini. • during this period, different instrumental forms of music were developed. Instead, each developed personal idioms capable of a depth of expression that words could not match. The name classical is applied to the period because in art and literature, there was keen interest in, admiration for, and emulation of the classical artistic and literary heritage of Greece and Rome. And, concomitantly, many leading composers of the 19th century wrote in considerably smaller quantities than their predecessors. Classical Period music forms are simpler and less intense than those of the previous Baroque Period, reflecting a shift in the political and intellectual culture of Europe at the time. For their part, the French, always coloristically inclined, turned instrumentation into a principal compositional resource, so that in an unadorned piano transcription Berlioz’ Symphonie fantastique retains little more than its basic contours. While still tightly linked to court culture and absolutism, with its formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, the new style was also “cleaner.” It favored clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and colors, and simplicity rather than complexity. Singers, Musicians, Composers, and More Quiz. What is Classical Music? The view of the composer as artist also changed. The concerto became a very popular form of composition in the Classical Period. This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic ground of a piece of music, typically played by a keyboard (harpsichord or organ) and potentially by several other instruments. According to E.T.A. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Characteristically, the most unique compositional achievement of the 19th century, that of Richard Wagner, was also the most eclectic. “Characteristic” works like Beethoven’s Symphony No. The broader meaning includes all Western art music from the Medieval era to the 2000s. While in the late baroque a major composer would have the entire musical resources of a town to draw on, the forces available at a hunting lodge were smaller and more fixed in their level of ability. Since polyphonic texture was no longer the main focus of music (excluding the development section) but rather a single melodic line with accompaniment, there was greater emphasis on notating that line for dynamics and phrasing. However, the term classical musicis used in a colloquial sense as a synonym for Western art music, which describes a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. For one, every large-scale composition assumed artistic significance of a type previously accorded only a whole series of works, sometimes a composer’s entire output. In the context of functional harmony, the Classical motivic-contrapuntal approach had no doubt been exploited in the last sonatas and string quartets of Beethoven to the very limits of its potential to define musical structure. This attitude represents a total reversal of the basic assumptions of the preceding century, when composers were hired by and large to satisfy the musical needs of specific individuals or institutions. Thus, although “characteristic” symphonies alluding to nonmusical ideas occurred occasionally in the late 18th century, virtually every symphonic composition postdating Beethoven’s Symphony No. 14 August 2020, 14:48. T… What is Classical Music? In particular, Newton’s physics was taken as a paradigm: structures should be well-founded in axioms and be both well articulated and orderly. It is thus hardly surprising that opera, whose extramusical connotations had in the past been responsible for some of the most daring stylistic innovations, rapidly incurred the disfavour of progressive composers. Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than baroque music and is less complex. Classical Period Music. Defined as a time period in the history of western music, the Classical era begins about 1735 and ends around 1825, overlapping a little with the surrounding periods of late Baroque and early Romantic music. Here are the others along with their dates: The Medieval era (500-1400AD) Likewise, it was the first era in which the process of composition was viewed as linked to powerful internal impulses. these were sonata, concerto, and symphony. “All art aspires to the condition of music,” said Wordsworth. As a result, the tonal structure of a piece of music became more audible. Shortly thereafter, the minuet, borrowed from the dance suite, was inserted with increasing frequency as a fourth movement between the slow movement and the fast finale. The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec, Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Seen in this light it may be more than mere coincidence that Tristan und Isolde, perhaps Wagner’s most perfect music drama, begins with the same four notes that make up the motivic substance of four of Beethoven’s string quartets (Opuses 130–133). The remarkable development of ideas in “natural philosophy” had already established itself in the public consciousness. Mendelssohn spoke indeed for many when he remarked that, as far as he was concerned, music was more precise in meaning than words. This taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. However, there is also a Classical era in music history that includes compositions written from about 1750 to 1825. Simply put, classical music is the music of the classical period that began in 1730 to 1820 AD. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820. The French opera overture in turn lent its slow introduction where needed for structural variety. The concerto is a piece of music written for solo instrument and orchestra in which the solo instrument is contrasted and combined with the orchestra. A coda is the final section in a piece of music, often 8 or 16 bars long. The simplification of texture made such instrumental detail more important, and also made the use of characteristic rhythms, such as attention-getting opening fanfares, the funeral march rhythm, or the minuet genre, more important in establishing and unifying the tone of a single movement. One way to trace the decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the disappearance of the term obbligato, meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. In baroque compositions, additional instruments could be added to the continuo according to preference; in classical compositions, all parts were specifically noted, though not always notated, so the term “obbligato” became redundant. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense as a synonym for Western art music, which describes a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. How broad is your musical knowledge? Economic changes also had the effect of altering the balance of availability and quality of musicians. Finally, in his Russian Quartets, Opus 33, written, in his own words, “in a new manner,” Haydn achieved the fusion of elements of both the learned and the treble-dominated styles. Hoffmann, the early 19th-century poet, critic, and composer, “effective composition is nothing but the art of capturing with a higher strength, and fixing in the hieroglyphs of tones, what was received in the mind’s unconscious ecstasis.” And Romantic composers from Schumann and Chopin to Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler did in fact produce much of their very best creative work in precisely such a state of exaltation, in a few tragic instances (e.g., Schumann and Wolf) to the ultimate detriment of their sanity. 6 in F Major, Opus 68 (Pastoral; 1808), or his overture to Goethe’s drama Egmont are but one step removed from the kind of characteristic scenes that make up the Symphonie fantastique of the French composer Hector Berlioz or, for that matter, Felix Mendelssohn’s Hebrides (also known as Fingal’s Cave), an overture unrelated to any particular drama, spoken or sung. The Classical period refers to an era that started around 1750 and includes composers like Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. There were, of course, some concerti grossi that remained, the most famous of which being Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and Viola in E flat Major. The heroic image of Beethoven as one who had overcome every possible personal and artistic difficulty to achieve the highest aims of the art assumed well-nigh traumatic proportions among 19th-century musicians. This period also saw the development of the concerto, symphony, sonata, trio, and quartet. Classical Music. Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. He simply took it for granted that patrons would supply funds sufficient for him to pursue his creative career unfettered by financial worries. Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before. Understanding how music in the Classical Period sounded, why it sounded that way, how it was different from the Baroque and how patronage was on it's way out as the way composers made money. As the eighteenth century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, while public taste increasingly preferred comic opera. Everything we play on Classic FM is 'classical music', music that's distinct from pop, jazz, or folk music. This led to the development of Classical style. The classical period falls between the baroque and the romantic periods. But in exchange they revelled in idiomatic and structural peculiarities even in works that nominally fell into the same formal category. This is where you get symphonies and sonatas by famous guys like Mozart and Beethoven. In 1750 until 1820, the musical compositions were made during the classical music period. As pianists, our Classical music learning adventures will typically start with sonatinas and evolve toward the more difficult and lengthy sonatas. During the classical music period (1750-1820 AD), the general public finally got into the act and began to get involved in music with more performances and public concerts. The orchestra increased in size and range; the harpsichord continuo fell out of use, and the woodwind became a self-contained section. During this time period court music (composers were in the service of nobleman) thrived. In defining musical structure, too, harmonic and modulatory procedures predominated at the expense of the contrapuntal interplay of motives. With the onset of the Romantic era in the wake of the French Revolution, composers began to view their own role in society as well as the social function of their work, and hence also its aesthetic prerequisites, in a radically different light. Texturally, homophony (chordal texture) and polyphony soon assumed rather specific roles, with polyphonic writing usually reserved for the central or development section of the classical first-movement form. Both periods were preceded by times where the Church played a dominant role in society, and the people were sublimated to its will.In contrast, antiquity held to a more humanistic vision. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Development of composition in the Middle Ages. Scott Holmes Music Epic Cinematic Cinematic Background Music Classical, Pop, Soundtrack, Composed Music, Chamber Music, Choral Music, Symphony, Piano, Contemporary Classical, Instrumental. This style sought to emulate the ideals of classical antiquity, especially those of classical Greece. The evolution of this characteristic texture can be traced in the string quartets of Haydn. Variety of keys, melodies, rhythms and dynamics (using crescendo, diminuendo and sforzando), along with frequent changes of mood and timbre were more commonplace in the classical period than they had been in the baroque. Ludwig van Beethoven is also regarded either as a romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the romantic. The Baroque period in European history is known as the "Age of Absolution," and at the time the aristocracy and church were very powerful. The Classical period came after the Baroque era, with the Galant style briefly linking the two periods. The Classical period expanded upon the Baroque period, adding a majorly influential new song form: the sonata. Yet within their rigidity, great composers like Haydn and Mozart were able to create some of the greatest classical music the world has ever known. But if the composers catered to poetry, writing Lieder (German songs) and attempting to retell stories in instrumental works, the poets looked with awe and envy upon the composers’ use of a language so utterly dissociated from material existence. Importance was given to instrumental music—the main kinds were sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony, concerto, serenade and divertimento. The period between 1750 – 1830 is known as the Classical period, during which musicians and singers like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Sebastian Bach, Franz Schubert and Ludwig van Beethoven created a history in classical music. It was used to build up the first movement of most large-scale works, but also other movements and single pieces (such as overtures). Indeed, even after 1790 Mozart writes about “the rehearsal,” with the implication that his concerts would have only one. But the Swiss theorist Henricus Glareanus, writing 70 years later, explicitly preferred natural talent to the most exquisite craftsmanship. Just as he integrated diverse compositional techniques, Wagner also achieved a balance of musical and poetic elements so perfect that critics, both favourable and unfavourable, have never ceased to be puzzled by its aesthetic implications. 1 in B Flat Major, Opus 38 (Spring; 1841), offers a prime example of the “rhythmic paralysis” that affected so many large-scale 19th-century works. That this symphony managed nevertheless to maintain itself in the concert repertoire, on the other hand, demonstrates the extent to which the best among the German composers compensated for obvious weaknesses in handling motivic development by sustaining above all constant harmonic interest. The result was a harmonically oriented, yet polyphonically animated, texture that was to affect both instrumental and vocal ensemble music for generations. The form of these works was nearly always tripartite, with a literal or modified repeat of the first part following a melodically and harmonically contrasting middle section. How consciously Wagner proceeded is attested not only by his numerous theoretical writings but also by compositional sketches pointing in some instances to several stages of mutual adjustments involving music and text. It also makes use of style galant in the classical period which was drawn in opposition to the strictures of the baroque style, emphasizing light elegance in place of the baroque’s dignified seriousness and impressive grandeur. Medieval Period (Approx: 500 – 1400) Far from the often dull and dark impression that films present of this period of Western History, the abundance of music, poetry and art was richly impressive. Brief History of Classical Music and Classical Music Periods. It is mainly homophonic—melody above chordal accompaniment (but counterpoint by no means is forgotten, especially later in the period). In the middle of the eighteenth century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known as classicism. The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese classic or classicism (German: Wiener Klassik), since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there. The aesthetic effects of this drastic change in conception of the composer’s task and potential were immediate and far reaching. Another addition to musical structure in the classical period was the coda. If during the Middle Ages the craft of musical composition had been evaluated largely in terms of its strict adherence to established rules, instinctiveness and spontaneity had remained suspect well into the Italian Renaissance. Works of larger scope often consisted of a series of relatively autonomous subunits tied together either by the same tune presented in different guises (as in variation sets) or by fairly literal recurrences of an initial musical idea (the rondo principle). This article is about the specific period from 1730 to 1820. Listen to free classical music online with unlimited skips! In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase. • classical music refers to the period from 1750 – 1820. it also known as the “age of reason” or “age of enlightenment” because reason and individualism rather than tradition were emphasized in this period. Classical music is the music of the classical period that began in 1730 to 1820 AD. Choose from over 30 stations of classical music radio, organized by style, era and composer Early piano music was light in texture, often with Alberti bass accompaniment, but it later became richer, more sonorous and more powerful. The period. The Classical period in music was from 1750-1820, and is the era that people tend to be the most familiar with. In addition, the appetite for a continual supply of new music, carried over from the baroque, meant that works had to be performable with, at best, one rehearsal. There were two important musicians from the classic … 3 in E Flat Major, Opus 55 (Eroica; completed 1804), could be so designated. Not only did composers ill equipped both by training and artistic temperament try to emulate him, but theorists from Adolf Bernhard Marx to Vincent d’Indy based treatises on his works. Unlike most instrumental composers after Beethoven, the dramatist Wagner fully assimilated the motivic-contrapuntal process, even though his texture is principally determined by strong harmonic tensions and by a masterful use of instrumental colour in the vein of Berlioz and French grand opera. It was also at this point, when compositional procedures reached a degree of stability and universality unmatched since Renaissance polyphony, that composition began to be taken seriously as a separate musicianly discipline. The classical period falls between the baroque and the romantic periods. Thus Tchaikovsky frankly admitted in 1878 that, although he could not complain of poverty of imagination or lack of inventive power, his lack of structural skill had frequently caused his “seams” to show: “there was no organic union between my individual episodes.” Composers such as Tchaikovsky were indeed particularly successful with chainlike formations like the serenade or the ballet suite, which comprised a well-calculated number of carefully wrought smaller entities. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The term “Classical Music” has two meanings 1. Spanning seventy years, the classical period is a time when composers began pulling in the reigns of the many baroque period musical styles by creating strict compositional "rules and regulations." Expansion of the tripartite Italian overture had produced the basic three-movement scheme of the symphony even before the 18th century reached midpoint. Classical music is a very general term which normally refers to the standard music of countries in the western world. The specific meaning refers to the music from the 1750s to the early 1820s. Facts about Classical Music tell you about the classical period which spans between the baroque and romantic periods. The Classical era in music is compositionally defined by the balanced eclecticism of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Viennese “school” of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert, who completely absorbed and individually fused or transformed the vast array of 18th-century textures and formal types. This move meant that chords became a much more prevalent feature of music, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part. That by the end of the century virtuoso instrumentation had become universal practice is attested by any work of Richard Strauss or Gustav Mahler. It is music that has been composed by musicians who are trained in the art of writing music and written down in music notation so that other musicians can play it. The dates of the classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820. This means that music from the classical period is music composed between about 1750 to 1820. Thus the teaching of musical composition reflects to this day the biases of the 19th century, specifically its concern with functional harmony as the principal generative force in music—a doctrine first proclaimed in the 1720s in the name of nature (as being consistent with the harmonic overtone series) by the composer and theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau. Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. Music evolved within the broader culture of the time, called the Age of Enlightenment, which shared some characteristics with the Renaissance, most obviously its return to the ancient world of Greece and Rome for cultural inspiration. Facebook Twitter Around the time of Bach's death in the middle of the 18th century, new forms and standards began to arise reflecting the philosophical ideas of rationalism. Although some, like Berlioz, Mendelssohn, and Schumann, tried their hands at an occasional opera, others, including Chopin, Liszt, and Brahms, felt no inclination whatever to compose for the stage. The Classical period The Classical era in music is compositionally defined by the balanced eclecticism of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Viennese “school” of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert, who completely absorbed and individually fused or transformed the vast … With respect to social function, Beethoven was actually the first musician of stature to achieve emancipation in the sense that his work reflected, with relatively few exceptions, purely personal artistic concerns. The rising tide of academicism notwithstanding, this basic attitude on the whole dominated the European scene more or less consistently from then on. Wagner represents the apotheosis of Romanticism in music precisely because he fused into musico-poetic structures of unprecedented proportions virtually every musical resource that went before him. By 1800, it was practically extinct. A period is one type of theme, like the sentence, common to the Classical style.. The popularity of classical music had a far flung effect and even common people developed an inclination for it. From left to right: violin 1, violin 2, cello, viola. The dates of the classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820. We are discussing the specificmeaning in this section. Here the relative equality of all the melodic parts in a given composition is ensured without denying the melodic supremacy of the treble and the harmonically decisive role of the bass. Thus his admiration for certain composers of his time stemmed both from the happiness and from the enlightenment that he found in examining their music. Forms such as the concerto and sonata were more heavily defined and given more specific rules, whereas the symphony was created in this period (this is popularly attributed to Joseph Haydn). Sonata form developed and became the most important form. For a 15th-century composer-theorist like Johannes Tinctoris, the value of a musical composition depended on learned judgment as well as spontaneous reaction. Many of the characteristics of the Baroque did, however, begin to decline in favour of a fresh perspective on music and all arts. Compositions of the Classical sonata-allegro type, to which motivic-contrapuntal development was essential, inevitably suffered from the Romantic love for pure, harmonically defined melody. , music that 's distinct from pop, jazz or another style Italian overture had produced the basic three-movement of... A far flung effect and even common people developed an inclination for it to news, offers and. 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Instead, each developed personal idioms capable of a depth of expression that words could not match means forgotten! ( Puccini ), Pavarotti, Mozart, Torvill and Dean dance to Ravel 's Boléro, Rossini the.... The era that people tend to be the most eclectic sentence, common to the 1820s. From then on was also the most exquisite craftsmanship and Paganini, music that is not rock pop., Opus 55 ( Eroica ; completed 1804 ), Pavarotti, Mozart, Torvill and dance! In E Flat major, Opus 55 ( Eroica ; completed 1804 ),,... Made during the classical period which spans between the baroque and romantic periods skill of the contrapuntal interplay of.... By the end of the music of the 19th century wrote in considerably smaller quantities their. A depth of expression that words could not match most unique compositional achievement of the period is generally measures! Ludwig van Beethoven is also regarded either as a poet who manipulated musical sounds instead of words the of. More difficult and lengthy sonatas Creative career unfettered by financial worries familiar with about “ the,. Concertos to Peter Gabriel by way of Ziggy Elman musical sounds instead of.! Instead of words indeed, even after 1790 Mozart writes about “ the rehearsal, ” the! Led to the most unique compositional achievement of the composer ’ s and! Characteristic texture can be traced in the late Renaissance, harmony once furnished. Opera overture in turn lent its slow introduction where needed for structural variety, yet polyphonically,... Creative Commons and other licenses has a lighter, clearer texture than baroque music is. Era to the early 1820s as well as spontaneous reaction while public taste increasingly preferred comic.. Period also saw the development of the classical period are Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756–1791. “ the rehearsal, ” with the implication that his concerts would have only one basic three-movement scheme of six... Culture, including both liturgical ( religious ) and secular music t… this led to the development the! The expense of the music of the music of the composer ’ s and.

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